In addition, there were about 5.22 million white people and 595,406 black or African-American people living in Indiana that year. The name Indiana means Land of the Indians, or simply Land of the Indians. It also comes from Indiana's territorial history. Later, the United States Congress passed a law to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and called the western section Indiana Territory.
In 1816, when Congress passed an enabling Act to begin the process of establishing Indiana's statehood, part of this territorial territory became the geographical area of the new state. The first inhabitants of what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived around 8000 BC, after glaciers melted at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted big game, like mastodons. They created stone tools made of flint by chipping, cutting and peeling.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC. C., covered the next phase of indigenous culture. People developed new tools and techniques for cooking food, an important step in civilization. These new tools included different types of spearheads and knives, with different notch shapes.
They made ground stone tools, such as stone axes, woodworking tools and sharpening stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthmoving mounds and garbage dumps, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent. The Archaic period ended around 1500 BC. C., although some archaic peoples lived until 700 BC.
The Woodland period began around 1500 BC. C., when new cultural attributes appeared. People created pottery and pottery and expanded their cultivation of plants. An early group from the Woodland period called the town of Adena had elegant burial rituals, with log graves under earthen mounds.
In the middle of the Woodland period, the people of Hopewell began to develop long-term trade in goods. As the end of the stage approached, people developed a highly productive crop and adapted agriculture, cultivating crops such as corn and pumpkin. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of the European meeting spoke different languages of the Algonquian family.
They included the Shawnee, Miami and Illini. Later, they were joined by refugee tribes from the eastern regions, including the Delaware, who settled in the White and Whitewater river valleys. In 1679, the French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend on the St. He returned the following year to discover the region.
Soon French-Canadian fur traders arrived and brought blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to exchange for furs with the Native Americans. In 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami in Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River.
In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post in Vincennes. French-Canadian settlers, who had abandoned their previous post because of the hostilities, returned in large numbers. Within a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and fought against Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. As a result, fighting between French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s.
Indiana's Native American tribes sided with French Canadians during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War). With the British victory in 1763, the French were forced to cede all their North American land to the British crown, east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies. Southern Indiana is characterized by rugged, mountainous valleys and terrain, which contrast with much of the state. Here, the bedrock is exposed on the surface.
Because of Indiana's predominant limestone, the area has many caves, caverns and quarries. Indiana is one of the 13 United States. States that are divided into more than one time zone. Indiana's time zones have fluctuated over the past century.
Today, most of the state observes Eastern Time; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time. Indiana is home to several current and former military installations. The largest of these is the Crane Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, approximately 25 miles southwest of Bloomington, which is the third largest naval facility in the world, comprising approximately 108 square miles of territory. Previously, Indiana was home to two major military installations: Grissom Air Force Base, near Peru (which became an Air Force Reserve facility in 1999) and Fort Benjamin Harrison, near Indianapolis, now closed, although the Department of Defense continues to operate a large financial center there ( Defense) Finance and Accounting Service).
Indiana was home to two founding members of the National Football League teams, the Hammond Pros and the Muncie Flyers. Another early NFL franchise, the Evansville Crimson Giants, spent two seasons in the league before retiring. The table below shows Indiana's professional sports teams. The teams in italics belong to the main professional leagues.
Indiana has had great sporting success at the college level. In men's basketball, the Indiana Hoosiers have won five NCAA national championships and 22 Big Ten Conference championships. The Purdue Boilermakers were selected as national champions in 1932 before the tournament was created, and have won 23 Big Ten championships. The Boilermakers and Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won a national women's basketball championship.
In college football, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won 11 consensual national championships, as well as the Rose Bowl Game, the Cotton Bowl Classic, the Orange Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Meanwhile, the Purdue Boilermakers have won 10 Big Ten championships and won the Rose Bowl and the Peach Bowl. Missouri Valley Football Conference Southland Bowling League (women's bowling) Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the old arbitrary system of road numbers and names and (among other things) makes it much easier to Identification of the sources of calls made to the 9-1-1 system. These systems are easier to implement in the northern and central parts of the state, crushed by glaciers.
Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have networks and more likely to rely on unsystematic road names (for example, Crawford, Harrison, Perry, Scott and Washington Counties). The highest high school graduation rate is among white people, with a rate of 91.20%. The highest rate of bachelor's degrees is found among Asians, with a rate of 57.45%. The race least likely to be in poverty in Indiana is white, with 10.28% below the poverty level.
In northwestern Indiana there are several sand ridges and dunes, some reaching nearly 200 feet in height; most of them are located in the Indiana Dunes National Park. . .